Cannabis is not only the most abused illicit drug in the United States it is in fact the most abused illegal drug worldwide. The United States it is a schedule I substance, which means it is legalized as not having any medical value and is extremely addictive. The author explains that not all cannabis is safe for abuse. Therefore, he suggests that we use the term marijuana when talking about cannabis that has abuse potential. To make it clearer, this term is employed in this article too.
Presently marijuana is at center of international debates about the legitimacy of its wide-spread illegality. In a number of Union states, it is now legal for medical reasons. This trend is commonly referred to in the United States as “medical marijuana” and is widely praised by those who advocate it, but resented severely by the opponents. In this regard, it was that the decision was made to focus on both the physical as well as pharmacological consequences of marijuana as the foundation of this research paper.
Marijuana is one of the plants appropriately referred to as cannabis sativa. As previously mentioned, certain cannabis sativa plants don’t contain any potential for abuse, and are known as hemp. Hemp is extensively used in different fiber products, including paper and canvas for artists.
Cannabis sativa, with the potential for abuse is what we refer to as marijuana. It is interesting to realize that despite being extensively studied over a period of time there’s a lot that researchers do not understand about cannabis. Neuroscientists and biologists are aware of how pot’s effects are , but they aren’t sure if they comprehend the implications. It is noted that of around four hundred known chemicals in cannabis plants, researchers have identified over sixty believed to exert psychoactive effects on humans’ brains.
A psychoactive substance, THC directly affects the central nervous system (CNS). It has a profound effect on a variety of neurotransmitters as well as catalyzes other enzymes and biochemical reactions also. In the CNS gets stimulated by THC stimulates certain neuroreceptors within the brain. This triggers a range of emotional and physical reactions that are discussed more precisely.
Only substances which stimulate neurotransmitters are those that mimic chemical substances produced by the brain naturally. It is known that THC enhances brain function is a lesson for researchers that the brain is equipped with natural receptors for cannabinoid. It’s not clear what causes humans to have natural cannabinoid receptors , and what they do (Hazelden 2005; Martin, 2004). We do know that marijuana stimulates cannabinoid receptors as much as twenty times more effectively as any natural neurotransmitters could.
Serotonin receptors are among those most affected by psychoactive substances, but specifically , nicotine and alcohol. It is not dependent on marijuana’s association with this chemical serotonin has been identified as a poorly understood neurochemical, and its supposed neuroscientific functions in function and use remain largely untested . The only thing neuroscientists have confirmed is that people who smoke marijuana have extremely high levels of serotonin production. There are so many options like thc concentrates for sale which can be bought online or could be ordered through phone call.
I’d like to speculate that it is this connection among THC and serotonin which explains this “marijuana maintenance plan” that helps people to abstain from alcohol. This permits marijuana users to avoid the painful withdrawal symptoms as well as avoid cravings for alcohol. The effectiveness in “marijuana maintenance” to aid in abstinence from alcohol isn’t scientifically proven, but it is an experience I observed personally with many clients.
It is interesting to note that marijuana mimics numerous neurological reactions that occur in other drugs that it’s very difficult to classify into the same class. The researchers will put it into one of the following groups: hallucinogen; psychedelic or serotonin-inhibitor. It is a substance that has properties that resemble similar chemical reactions to opioids.
The cause of this is due to the long list of many psychoactive properties that are found in marijuana, both well-known as well as undiscovered. One of my recent clients was unable to overcome the visual distortions that he experienced due to the pervasive psychedelic usage as long as the marijuana he was smoking.
This was thought to be an effect of the psychedelic effects found in active cannabis. While not sufficient to create the visual distortions on its on its own, the marijuana itself was powerful enough to hinder the brain from recovering and healing.
Cannibinoid receptors are found in the brain and affect various functions. The most significant on an emotional level is stimulation of the brain’s nucleus of accumbens which alters the brain’s reward centers. Another example is the amygdala, which regulates one’s fears and emotions.
I’ve noticed that people who smoke a lot of marijuana that I personally work with seem to have a similarity in using the drug to deal with their anger. This observation is supported by on the results and forms the basis of many studies.
Studies have revealed that the link between cannabis and managing anger is significant clinically. The mechanism of anger is that helps to guard against emotional repercussions of stress, which is fueled by fear. According to research that fear is a fundamental function that is controlled by the amygdala, which is a significant stimulant of marijuana.
Neurophysical effects of THC:
The neurologic messages that are transmitted between receptors and transmitters do not only regulate emotions, but also psychological function. It is also the way the body regulates both voluntary and nonvolitional functions. The cerebellum as well as the basal ganglia regulate the entire bodily motion and coordination.
They are two of the most frequently stimulated regions of the brain, which are activated by marijuana. This is the reason marijuana has a physiological effect in causing blood pressure changes and weakening of muscles. THC eventually affects all neuromotor activity to a certain degree.
One interesting thing I’ve observed in the majority of customers who say marijuana is their primary drug of choice is the habit of smoking prior to eating. This is explained by the effects from marijuana that affect”CB-1″ receptor “CB-1” receptor. The CB-1 receptors within the brain are located within the limbic system or nucleolus, that regulates reward pathways. These reward pathways influence our eating habits and appetite as part of our body’s survival instinct that causes us to feel the need for eating food , and reward us with dopamine once we finally get to eat. Martin discusses this connection and explains that the only thing marijuana users have can be the stimulation to the CB-1 receptor, directly stimulating the appetite.
What is the difference between high grade as well as low-grade?
One of my clients has shared how he started smoking up to 15 joint of “low quality” marijuana every day, but later changed to “high quality” as the lower grade was beginning to fail. Then, 15 joints of high-grade marijuana was no longer effective for him too.
He was often unable to obtain the “high” from it as well. This whole process happened within the first five years following the first time the client had ever interacted using marijuana. What is the difference between high and low-grade marijuana and why does it begin to fade away after a time?
Potency can be determined by the THC amount in the product. As the market on street gets increasingly competitive, quality in the streets becomes more pure. This has led to a rise of ever increasing potency that is responsive to demand. One joint of marijuana that is smoked today has the same THC power as ten joints of marijuana used in the 1960’s.
The THC content will be based on the part of the leaf being utilized for production. For instance , cannabis buds could be anywhere from two to nine times stronger than leaves that are fully developed. Hash oil, a type of marijuana created by distilling cannabis resin can produce greater levels of THC than even premium buds.
The requirement to increase the quantity of marijuana smoked or to increase the dosage from low to high grade is referred to by the scientific term tolerance. The brain is extremely efficient. Since it is aware that neuroreceptors are stimulated but not the neurotransmitters that emit chemical messages, brain reduces the chemical output, so the levels go back to normal.
The smoker won’t experience the same high since his brain is “tolerating” the increased levels of chemicals and they are returning to normal. The smoker then increases the dosage to experience the high of the past and the cycle repeats. The smoker might find switching between grades beneficial for a time. The brain eventually ceases to make the chemical entirely relying entirely to the chemical taken in.
The other side of the process of tolerance is called “dependence.” When the body ceases to produce itself natural substances, the body requires the user of marijuana to keep smoking to allow the body to function chemicals indefinitely. The body is now commanding to consume THC which makes it very difficult to stop. Research has shown that dependence on marijuana is stronger than the seemingly more difficult drugs such as cocaine.
When you stop taking other substances such as opioids, stimulants, or alcohol, the body responds in adverse and often risky ways. This is because of the abrupt loss of chemical input , which is accompanied by being aware that our brains have stopped their natural neurotransmission of these chemicals long in the past. This is known as withdrawal.
Although research has demonstrated similar withdrawal reactions in those who use marijuana as other substances like alcohol What I’ve observed many times during my interactions with my clients has been the absence of withdrawal experience experienced by the majority marijuana users. They do experience hunger, however they do not have the same neurological withdrawal reactions that other users of drugs experience. Many marijuana users claim this is their final evidence the marijuana “is not a substance” and should not be subjected same treatment and rehabilitation efforts like other alcohol or drug addicts.
The truth is that the apparent lack of withdrawal symptoms is due to the particular way that our bodies store THC. While other substances like alcohol can be eliminated from one’s system in a matter of one to five day period, THC may be a long time until it’s completely removed into the bloodstream. When THC is inhaled by the smoker, it’s initially released very quickly throughout the lungs, the heart and the brain.
THC however, eventually transformed into protein, and then stored in muscles and body fat. The second storage process in the reserve of body fat is more sluggish. If a person begins abstinence, the THC stored in fat starts its gradual release into the blood circulation. Although the rate of reentry into body’s system isn’t enough to cause an effect psychoactive, however it does help ease smokers through withdrawal in a less stressful and pain-free way.
As one continues to smoke,, the more they store. The greater body mass the smoker is the more THC can be stored also. In the case of extremely large smokers, I’ve seen it take as long as 30 days before urine tests reveal a clear THC level.
Like the THC’s slow taper-like cleansing is the slow pace in the beginning of the psychoactive reaction. Customers report that they do not feel high from smoking marijuana immediately as it takes time to allow their bodies to adapt to it before feeling the sensation of high. This is due to its slow and gradual absorption THC into the fatty tissues, with peak levels appearing within 4 to 5 days.
When THC starts to release slowly into bloodstream and the physiological response increase rapidly with each new cigarette, and will result in another sensation of. When the user continues this process , and the high levels THC build up throughout the body and proceed to enter the brain The THC gets transferred to the neocortical sensory, limbic, and motor areas , which were described earlier.
Neurology as well as neurophysiology behind marijuana have been explained so far. There are numerous physical elements of smoking marijuana in addition. National Institute on Drug Abuse says that people who smoke marijuana suffer from the same respiratory ailments like tobacco smokers, including the daily cough, phlegm production frequently, frequent acute chest illnesses and a higher chance of developing lung illnesses. They cite research that shows that those who smoke marijuana regularly who don’t smoke tobacco, are more susceptible to health issues than those who do not smoke due to respiratory diseases.
The final research that demonstrates the detrimental biological adverse health effects of marijuana is not conclusive. It is known that marijuana smoke has up to 70% greater carcinogenic hydrocarbons that smoking tobacco does.
Although some studies show that marijuana smokers exhibit the growth of epithelial cells that are not properly controlled inside their lung tissue that could lead to cancer however, other studies have revealed that there are no associations whatsoever with marijuana smoking and the upper respiratory tract, lung or stomach cancers of the upper part of the digestive tract. The most interesting aspect is the fact that all experts are of the opinion that there hasn’t been one documented death that was reported solely as a result of marijuana use.
This particular fact about the seemingly non-harmful effects of marijuana use when compared to legal substances such as nicotine and alcohol is usually the first to be mentioned by those who advocate legalizing marijuana because of its health benefits. This is due towards the apparent positive effects marijuana has on cancer, alzheimers, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and AIDS.
Although not scientifically proven but based on personal experiences of positive effects of marijuana on sufferers suffering with chronic illness are cited as benefits which are said to outweigh negative effects.
Van Tuyl states “almost all drugs , even ones that are legal can pose more dangers to the individual’s health and/or the general public than marijuana.” She believes that legalizing smoking of marijuana wouldn’t justify the positive effects , but she believes that the dangers of smoking marijuana could be “mitigated by alternative methods of administration, like vapourization”.
The evidence points at more risky drugs in clinical trials like opioids, benzodiazepines, or amphetamines which are administered via prescription on a regular basis. These medications, like Vicodine, Xanex, or Ritalin are legal in the world when they are deemed “medically essential.”
Although I’m not comfortable with the debate regarding marijuana’s legalization however, as I conclude this research paper, there are some clear consequences for my work as an addiction professional. Alcohol is also legal like nicotine, but for an addiction counselor it is essential to keep a clear and consistent message regarding the biopsychosocial implications of the use of any drug. Due to the dearth of evidence-based knowledge about the neurobiological aspects that are associated with specific brain function the most important consideration going forward will be following the latest discoveries regarding the brain’s neurochemistry of THC and the other cannabanoids.
The most important discoveries in the current clinical practice are the relationship between marijuana’s pathology to self-medication for emotional reasons tolerance, tolerance, and the most importantly, the process of withdrawal. I’ve started to use the understanding of both the physical as well as pharmacological consequences of marijuana that I have discussed previously with success in my own practice and I am looking forward to with further research in order to achieve exactly the same.